-1

The baseline treatment. This is the treatment compared against any treatment coded as punishment treatment (= 1 identifies the punishment effect). This means that the treatment is equal to the punishment treatment, except for the availability of punishment (which includes other concepts that are part of punishment, such as punishment effectiveness, etc.)

-1

The baseline treatment. This is the treatment compared against any treatment coded as punishment treatment (= 1 identifies the punishment effect). This means that the treatment is equal to the punishment treatment, except for the availability of punishment (which includes other concepts that are part of punishment, such as punishment effectiveness, etc.)